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Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse.
Further, the paper discusses future vertical transportation models including a vertical subway concept, a space lift, and electromagnetic levitation technology. As these new technological advancements in elevator design empower architects to create new forms and shapes of large-scale, mixed-use developments, this paper concludes by highlighting the need for interdisciplinary research in incorporating elevators in skyscrapers.
Introduction When people think about the development of cities, rarely do they contemplate the critical role of vertical transportation.
Consider, however, that each day, more than 7 billion elevator journeys are taken in tall buildings all over the world [ 12 ]. Efficient vertical transportation has the ability to limit or expand our ability to build taller and taller skyscrapers, and recent innovations in elevator design promise to significantly reduce energy consumption.
Indeed, the race to build ever taller skyscrapers has sparked fierce competition among lift manufacturers to build faster, more efficient, safer, more comfortable and more economical elevators.
While cars have facilitated horizontal spread of cities and regions, encouraging sprawl and suburbia, elevators have enabled concentrating a large number of people and human activities in a smaller footprint.
New advances in elevator technologies are likely to reshape cities further by enabling even taller buildings [ 23 ]. In addition to highlighting the importance of elevators in the development of our cities, this paper aims to educate about the intersection of green technologies with energy efficient elevators.
New innovations are leading to the introduction of energy efficient elevators that not only consume less energy, but also produce clean energy. Architects and architectural students may particularly find this aspect of the paper useful since it contains essential knowledge for incorporating elevators in tall buildings.
Restrictive building codes in some countries, including the United States, are often a barrier to employing innovative, emerging, elevator technologies. Governments should consider financial incentives, perhaps in the form of tax credits, for the incorporation of green elevators into future skyscrapers and the retrofitting of green elevators into older buildings.
To accomplish these goals, this research delves into the recent technological innovations of global leaders of elevator manufacturers e. These companies are producing and implementing premium elevators that enjoy improved controls, hardware, and other systems that not only use less energy but are also much more compact, efficient, and even generate electricity that a building can use.
This study also builds on the work of many scholars who have been active in elevator design and technology research [ 12131415161718 ]. The paper follows a simple structure. First, it describes recent technological advancements in elevator design.
Next, it furnishes five detailed case studies that illustrate incorporating state-of-the-art technologies in major skyscraper projects around the world including: Then, the paper discusses technologies that focus on the passenger experience, including speed, comfort, security, and entertainment.
Finally, it addresses future research and development on elevator design.
Glen Pederick,explains that everyday there are more than 7 billion elevator journeys taken in buildings all over the world; and as such, energy-saving elevators will reduce energy consumption significantly [ 20 ]. Fortunately, new technologies and best practices involving motors, regeneration converters, control software, optimization of counterweights and cabin lighting can yield significant savings [ 2021 ].
New elevators provide efficiency gains of about 30—40 percent than buildings with older lifts [ 14 ]. In this regards, ISO These standards provide measured values and calculations on an annual basis for different types of elevators and present the data according to different energy classification systems for new, existing, and modernized elevators.
However, research by De Almeida et al. This paper serves to respond to this gap and educate architects and developers on how to harness the power of these new technologies.
For simplicity, new elevator technologies are discussed within two categories: Other technologies related to elevators are discussed in the subsequent section. In order to provide development continuity, the discussion starts by briefly mentioning earlier energy-efficient innovations and then moves quickly to the most recent ones [ 81223 ].
AC and DC Motors One of the significant advances in elevator technology has been from the replacement of conventional brushed DC direct current motors with more efficient AC alternating current motors.
Before the s, elevator systems relied on DC motors because it was easier to control elevator acceleration, deceleration, and stopping with this form of power. As a result, AC power typically was restricted to freight elevators, where comfort and speed are not as critical as in passenger elevators.
By the late s, however, more elevators had moved to AC machines because motor controller technology had advanced enough so that it could regulate AC power, enabling smooth stopping, acceleration, and deceleration [ 91224 ].
Geared and Gearless Motors High-rise buildings typically employ geared or gearless traction elevators capable of high or variable speed operation. In geared machines, the electric traction motor drives a reduction gearbox whose output turns a sheave over which the rope passes between the car and the counterweights.
In contrast, in gearless elevators, the drive sheave is directly connected to the motor, thereby eliminating gear-train energy losses.Read all the hottest movie and tv news. Get all the latest updates on your favorite movies - from new releases to timeless classics, get the scoop on Moviefone.
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